Liquid vs Powder Detergents

eBook detailing liquid and powder detergents for comparison, their markets, improvements and future trends.

Product detail
Product type: Books
Date of publication: 19 Sep 2011
Product format: Digital Copy
Liquid vs Powder Detergents

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Laundry detergents were traditionally supplied as solids, in bars or as granular powders. It was not until the 1960s that liquid laundry detergents were launched in the United States. Since then, they have come to overwhelmingly dominate the U.S. market. Their market share in Europe varies: In countries of Northern Europe, liquids capture a mere 10-20 percent of sales -- but in the Mediterranean countries, liquid holds at least half the market, and its popularity is still growing. This eBook lays out the differences in ingredients between solid and liquid detergents, and the properties of each medium. Purchasing, storing and washing behaviors of U.S. and European consumers are compared, including the surprising popularity of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) capsules for timed release of liquid detergents. It also reviews soluble additives such as enzymes, bleaches and why bleach activators work well in powdered detergent while being problematic in liquid detergent. Development of liquid detergents is continuing against a backdrop of major changes, in particular new environmental regulatory obstacles. In response, manufacturers are improving their production processes and looking to replace synthetic petrochemical-derived ingredients with those obtained from renewable natural resources. The eBook also posits how future improvements in washing machine technology could impact detergent development.

Contents

Executive Summary
Introduction and Methodology

  • Introduction
  • Scope
  • Methodology
  • Definitions

Powder and Liquid Detergent Technologies

  • Introduction
  • Powdered Heavy-Duty Laundry Detergents
    • Surfactants
    • Builders
    • Bleaches
    • Enzymes
    • Polymers, Complexing Agents and Other Ingredients
  • Liquid Heavy-duty Detergents
    • Surfactants
    • Soaps and Fatty Acids
    • Builders
    • Bleaches
    • Enzymes
    • Polymers
  • Laundry Bars
  • Unit-dose Laundry Detergents
    • Tablets
    • Liquitabs or Capsules
  • Laundry Aids
    • Bleaches
    • Fabric Softeners
  • Hand Dishwashing Detergents
  • Other Cleaning Formulations

The Global Market for Powder and Liquid

  • Detergents
  • Introduction
  • Types of Laundry and Dishwashing Detergents
    • Laundry Detergents
    • Dishwashing Detergents
  • Use of Liquid Laundry Detergents
    • Hand Washing Laundry
    • Laundry Detergents for Machine Washing
    • Use of Liquid Laundry Detergents
    • Dishwashing Detergents
  • Comparison of Solid and Liquid Laundry Detergents
  • Summary

Improving Detergent Performance

  • Introduction
  • The Solubility of Surfactants in Water
    • Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance
    • The Formation of Micelles
    • Effect of Temperature on the Aqueous Solubility of Surfactants
    • Liquid Crystal Phases
    • Effect of Other Ingredients on Surfactant Solutions
    • Formulation of Concentrated Liquid Laundry
  • Detergents
  • Enzymes
    • Stabilisation of Enzymes in Aqueous Solutions
    • The Stability of Enzymes in the Presence of Surfactants
    • Stabilising Enzymes in the Presence of Bleaches
  • Liquid Detergent Viscosity
  • Separating Ingredients (Detergent Boosters)
  • Encapsulation

The Future of Liquid and Powder Detergents

  • Surfactants
  • Bleaches
  • Environmental and Sustainability Issues
  • Reducing Washing Temperature
  • Reducing Water Use
  • Sustainability
  • Automatic Dispensing of Liquid Detergents
  • Spot Cleaners
  • Unit-Doses
  • Could Powders Fight Back?

References

Tables and Figures

TABLES

  • TABLE 2.1 Composition of typical European powder and liquid heavy-duty detergents
  • TABLE 3.1 Typical laundry hand washing conditions in BRIC
  • TABLE 3.2 Typical washing machine conditions in developed regions
  • TABLE 3.3 Advantages and disadvantages of liquid detergents
  • TABLE 3.4 Advantages and disadvantages of powder detergents
  • TABLE 3.5 Advantages and disadvantages of tablet detergents
  • TABLE 3.6 Advantages and disadvantages of liquid tabs (capsules)
  • TABLE 4.1 Structure of key detergent enzyme amino acids

FIGURES

  • FIGURE 2.1 Structure of surfactants
  • FIGURE 2.2 Ethylene oxide
  • FIGURE 2.3 Alkyl polyglucoside (APG) surfactant
  • FIGURE 2.4 EDTA
  • FIGURE 2.5 EDTA metal complex
  • FIGURE 2.6 The activity of oxy-bleaches at different temperatures
  • FIGURE 2.7 The formation of peracid bleaches from persalts
  • FIGURE 2.8 Typical soap molecule
  • FIGURE 2.9 Citric acid
  • FIGURE 2.10 EDDS
  • FIGURE 2.11 The structure of quat fabric softeners
  • FIGURE 2.12 Structure of esterquat fabric softener
  • FIGURE 3.1 Household ownership of washing machines by country, 2005 and 2010 (%)
  • FIGURE 3.2 Household ownership of automatic dishwashers by country, 2005 and 2010 (%)
  • FIGURE 3.3 US: market for liquid and powder laundry detergents, 2006-2010 (€m)
  • FIGURE 3.4 France: market for liquid, powder and tablet laundry detergents, 2006-2010 (€m)
  • FIGURE 3.5 Italy: market for liquid, powder and tablet laundry detergents, 2006- 2010 (€m)
  • FIGURE 3.6 Spain: market for liquid, powder and tablet laundry detergents, 2005-2009 (€m)
  • FIGURE 3.7 UK: market for liquid, powder and tablet laundry detergents, 2006- 2010 (€m)
  • FIGURE 3.8 Sweden: market for liquid and powder laundry detergents, 2006- 2010 (€m)
  • FIGURE 3.9 Germany: market for liquid, powder and tablet laundry detergents, 2006- 2010 (€m)
  • FIGURE 3.10 Poland: market for liquid, powder and hand wash laundry detergents, 2006- 2010 (€m)
  • FIGURE 3.11 Russia: market for powder, hand wash and bar laundry detergents, 2006-2010 (€m)
  • FIGURE 3.12 Turkey: market for powder and hand wash laundry detergents, 2006-2010 (€m)
  • FIGURE 3.13 Japan: market for liquid and powder laundry detergents, 2006- 2010 (€m)
  • FIGURE 3.14 China: market for liquid, powder, and bar laundry detergents, 2006-2010 (€m)
  • FIGURE 3.15 US market for dishwashing detergents by type, 2006- 2010 (€m)
  • FIGURE 3.16 Western European market for dishwashing detergents by type, 2006-2010 (€m)
  • FIGURE 3.17 Dishwashing detergent market for Egypt, Poland, Russia and Turkey by type, 2006-2010 (€m)
  • FIGURE 3.18 Dishwashing detergent market for Brazil, China and Japan by type, 2006-2010 (€m)
  • FIGURE 4.1 Effect of CMC on micelle formation
  • FIGURE 4.2 The structure of spherical and rod-shaped micelles
  • FIGURE 4.3 Solubility of an ionic surfactant as a function of temperature
  • FIGURE 4.4 Phase diagram for the alcohol ethoxylate surfactant, C12E6
  • FIGURE 4.5 Spherical micelles arranged in a cubic lattice
  • FIGURE 4.6 Cylindrical micelles arranged into a hexagonal lattice
  • FIGURE 4.7 Bicontinuous liquid crystal structures
  • FIGURE 4.8 Structure of surfactant bilayers and vesicles
  • FIGURE 4.9 Phase diagram for SDS-water
  • FIGURE 4.10 Structure of amino acid and formation of peptides
  • FIGURE 4.11 Structure of Kao's M-protease
  • FIGURE 4.12 A protease molecule digesting a protein stain