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This eBook reviews past technologies used to commercialize 3D, as well as how 3D displays have begun a slow-but-steady crossover from specialty applications to the mainstream consumer market. The future will see 3D displays do much more than provide realistic images; as author David Saddington points out, 3D will evolve into a whole new realm of immersion for and interaction with humans. Breakthroughs such as 3D gesture control, tangible manipulation of 3D objects, augmented reality, and social immersion are some of the new technologies that this eBook posits will ultimately change the way people interact with each other, machines and devices, the Internet and the environment.
This eBook outlines how global political instability, terrorism, financial crises and natural disasters have caused many users to re-think their dependence on fossil fuels. Concerns about humanity's potential contribution to climate change also have driven the search for alternative energy technologies. How fast can a switch be made? Author John P. Thornton recounts two nautical examples of successful technology shifts in the last 160 years: the move from sail-driven to coal-powered ships; then from coal- to oil-fired vessels. There are additional and numerous modern examples of rapid technology upgrades, such as the growth of the mobile telephone industry. Thornton states that PV and other renewable technologies are poised to make this transition now. He catalogues the many characteristics that make PV a promising technology to reduce negative environmental impacts. This eBook also notes that significantly large global deployment of renewable technologies will have a major impact on society, and provides estimates on the significant contribution that building-mounted PV (BMPV) can make toward satisfying energy needs.
As plastics are predominantly made from crude oil, the use of bioplastics offers significant advantages in an ecological and economic sense. There are two basic processes for the manufacture of bioplastics: Direct extraction from biomass, which yields a series of natural polymer materials; alternatively, the renewable resources/biomass feedstock can be converted to bio-monomers by fermentation or hydrolysis and then further converted by chemical synthesis to bioplastics. Bio-monomers can also be microbially transformed to Bioplastics. Vegetable oils offer another important carbon platform to polyols and other functional monomers/macromers. Overall, even though bioplastics are generally more expensive than regular plastic, the variety of uses and benefits could outweigh the cost; Bioplastics cut down on municipal waste, reduce GHGs, are environmentally friendly, and can be used as a fuel. And, with developing technologies, these benefits will only increase and the cost will be competitive in the market.
This eBook investigates the complexity of scents and delves into the history of fragrance use in the products we use to clean ourselves, our clothes and our homes an industry that currently is worth $22 billion a year. Perfumers aim to create olfactory experiences by blending individual fragrances with different properties but complementary effects. The compounds go into household products including perfumes and colognes, air fresheners, fragranced candles, soaps and shampoos. Even though they are used in very small quantities, a view persists among many consumers that artificial fragrances cause physical irritations. As a result of this sensitivity, the fragrance industry has established two self-regulating bodies to ensure that fragrances are safe. Those organizations and government regulations on labelling are reviewed, as well as restrictions adopted toward the use of certain substances. Despite new fragrances being introduced over the last 150 years, great potential exists for developing new aromatic compounds that are more chemically stable and can be used more flexibly. This eBook concludes with an overview of current research trends, including the use of fragrance molecules containing silicon atoms and the first fragrances produced through the fermentation of genetically engineered microorganisms.
This eBook lays out the differences in ingredients between solid and liquid detergents, and the properties of each medium. Purchasing, storing and washing behaviors of U.S. and European consumers are compared, including the surprising popularity of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) capsules for timed release of liquid detergents. It also reviews soluble additives such as enzymes, bleaches and why bleach activators work well in powdered detergent while being problematic in liquid detergent. Development of liquid detergents is continuing against a backdrop of major changes, in particular new environmental regulatory obstacles. In response, manufacturers are improving their production processes and looking to replace synthetic petrochemical-derived ingredients with those obtained from renewable natural resources. The eBook also posits how future improvements in washing machine technology could impact detergent development.
This eBook reviews the problem-solving benefits of optical coating as display technologies grew beyond the confines of television units and evolved into the myriad of other applications. Breakthroughs in materials used for optical coating are covered, from the traditional indium tin oxide to the latest carbon nanotubes and graphene materials that would provide a more cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative. Also discussed are special optical-coating properties, including anti-reflective (AR); anti-glare (AG); electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection; scratch and abrasion resistance; infrared (IR) blockers; and antimicrobial properties. Finally, the author reveals optical and screen protection solutions for new and upcoming products and applications that herald the future of imaging and display technologies today.
This eBook evaluates how different countries are using renewable sources to produce electricity, and reviews the known options for storing energy. China's dramatic recent growth, as both a user of electricity and a producer of renewable energy, is of particular interest. The increased use of renewable energy sources means there will be times when there is too much available energy when demand is low or not enough energy generation when demand is high. Therefore, some form of energy storage is required. No single storage system is ideal for every application. Author Michael J. Weighall envisions that as the market for energy storage grows, a range of systems will find a market, dependent on the requirements. Emerging growth technologies, such as solar photovoltaics, also are evaluated.
This eBook discusses the key applications for the material. The field of nanotechnology has opened up the possibilities for titanium dioxide, and the author examines these as well. Globally, titanium dioxide production has increased by about 4.4 percent over the past four years. Major issues of concern for the titanium dioxide industry are reviewed, including health and economic considerations. Overall, this report will provide members of the titanium dioxide industry with the latest scientific data and examples from key players in the industry to highlight the market for titanium dioxide, particularly focused on the market for novel applications.
This eBook delves into new regulations which will impact the lighting marketplace, including: New York City's mandate to retrofit its largest buildings to current energy codes; energy standard language extending the scope of codes to existing buildings undergoing significant lamp-plus-ballast retrofits; and the legislated phasing out of magnetic fluorescent T12 systems. Also reviewed are various automatic lighting control strategies, and leading and emerging technologies of interest.
This e-book brings together the information on bioplastics in the waste stream and the scientific and technological advances on the production, application, reuse, recycle, ultimate disposal and environmental aspects. This topic has grown in importance as the need for environmentally friendly products from renewable resources and these products’ lifecycle, ultimate disposal and associated greenhouse gas emissions and global warming have become important issues.
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